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Conjunctive Adverbs

What are Conjunctions? The word conjunction is derived from Latin which means “join together”. As the meaning suggests they connect parts of a sentence. They are used to join words, sentences, phrases, and clauses. The second part here is Adverbs, what are they? Adverbs are the words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Now the question arises whether adverbs can be used as conjunction or not? And the answer is Yes, they can be, and when they are used as conjunctions, they’re known as Conjunctive Adverbs.

Conjunctive Adverbs are the words that help in joining two main or independent clauses (clause which makes complete sense even when it stands alone and is a sentence on its own) together and thus helps in creating a shorter sentence. Also known as Adverbial Conjunctions, they ease the transition between ideas by showing contrast (although, instead, in spite of, and regardless), comparison (also, likewise, and similarly), time (before, meanwhile, furthermore, lately, now, since, and thereafter), addition (in addition, next, still, also, and again) or other relationships between them (ideas).


Basic Rules for Conjunctive Adverbs

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  • A Conjunctive Adverb acts as a coordinating conjunction when it is used to join two main or independent clauses, as it is connecting two separate and complete ideas. The below pattern (the steps are further explained in detail in the below points) is to be followed for the same :
                     Main Clause + ; + Conjunctive Adverb + , + Main Clause
  • A period or semicolon is placed before the Conjunctive Adverb if it is joining two main or independent clauses. 
         For example:
  1. Jane was not feeling well; therefore, she was sent back from school. 
  2. Rosy went to the mall yesterday; however, she did not purchase anything. 
  • The Conjunctive Adverbs are followed by a comma when they precede the second main or independent clause being connected. 
         For example:
  1. You will have to study hard this time; otherwise, you will not pass.
  2. I hugged Clara and explained her that everything will be alright; thereafter, she smiled.
  • A comma is used to separate the Conjunctive Adverb from the sentence if it is used in a single main or independent clause. 
         For example:
  1. I am bored of eating chicken every day. Therefore, I will try something vegetarian today.
  2. Charles desires for a gun on his birthday. Meanwhile, Angela wants a Barbie for her birthday. 
  • The Conjunctive Adverbs do not need extra punctuation in case they function like a regular adverb and modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. 
         For example:
  1. Suzanna was accordingly very interested in dancing.
Here, the adverb accordingly is modifying interested which is acting like a verb in the sentence.

Few More Examples:
  1. Rochelle woke up late this morning. Nevertheless, she wasn’t late for work. 
  2. Ted did not study; hence he failed.
  3. Joanna really wanted to attend the party; however, she was too busy. 
  4. It was a really bad movie; moreover, there was no AC in the theatre. 
  5. You finish your homework; meanwhile, I will make noodles for us.
  6. At 10 a.m., Joshua was supposed to be taking his biology midterm. Instead, he was flirting with the pretty waitress at the coffee house.

Common Conjunctive Adverbs

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    S.No.         Conjunctive Adverbs          S.No.         Conjunctive Adverbs         S.No.        Conjunctive Adverbs    
 1  Furthermore  11  Consequently  21  Eventually
 2  Again  12  Finally  22  Further
 3  Accordingly  13  In fact  23  In addition
 4  Although  14  Anyway  24  Still
 5  As a result  15  Besides  25  Likewise
 6  Certainly  16  Subsequently  26  Therefore
 7  Hence  17  Henceforth  27  Thereafter
 8  Similarly  18  Otherwise  28  Thus
 9  Nonetheless  19  Next  29  Then
 10  Indeed  20  Instead  30  Meanwhile

  • Conjunctive adverbs are parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another
  • If a conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning of the sentence then use a comma immediately afterwards.
  • Always use a full stop or semicolon before the conjunctive adverb when separating two independent clauses. 
  • If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should be enclosed in commas most of the time. 

Practice Time:  It’s time to recall everything that we have studied so far.

Exercise # 1: Choose the correct conjunctive adverb from the below list and fill up the blank using one word only once:

However nevertheless meanwhile  before still otherwise   likewise   instead   on the other hand consequently furthermore anyway
  1. Hurry up; ________, you will miss the bus.
  2. Jeremy studied a lot for the Biology exam; ________, she failed.
  3. John is a dancer; ________, his sister Mary is singer.
  4. Holly did not take a cab to college today. ________, she drove on her own.
  5. He is not much educated.____________, he is making handsome amount.
  6. He was crying in pain; __________, no one came for his help.
  7. You grade the papers; ___________, I will prepare the dinner.
  8. Now I understand geometry; ______, I was completely confused.
  9. Lilly had a bad experience with lobster at the restaurant round the corner; _______, she decided not to eat there again.
  10. Tennis is a fun sport; ________, it's really expensive.

Exercise # 2: Choose the best suitable conjunctive adverb from the options given below and fill in the blank:

  • Johny is poor in studies; ________________, his brother Jake is very intelligent.
           a) In contrast c) Similarly
           b) However d) Nevertheless
  • He has a terrible voice; ________________, he will go down in history as the worst singer ever.
           a) Anyway c) Otherwise
           b) Undoubtedly d) Still
  • Gerry wanted to go to Spain; ________________, he went to Brazil.
           a) Instead   c) Therefore
           b) Undoubtedly d) Still
  • He is a weak leader; ________________, most people appreciate him.
           a) However   c) Therefore
           b) Undoubtedly d) Nevertheless
  • ___________, the starter, I thought the meal was nice.
           a) Apart from   c) Before
           b) Anyway d) Also
  • The car I bought looked good; _________, it was reasonably priced.
           a) Again   c) Moreover
           b) Although         d) Therefore
  • I love you a lot; ________, I think we should marry each other.
           a) In fact   c) However
           b) Although         d) Also
  • You are my best friend; ________, I feel you are taking me for granted
           a) Therefore           c) Nonetheless
           b) Again         d) Still
  • It rained pretty hard. _____________, the match was postponed.
           a) Moreover           c) Nonetheless
           b) However         d) As a result
  • Sharon is very good at sketching; ___________ she isn’t good at coloring.
           a) Nevertheless   c) On the other hand
           b) Similarly         d) Nonetheless

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