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Adjective

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The words cold, round, narrow, pink, one, five, these, each, which and my tell something about the nouns – coffee, table, lane, roses, teacher, students, apartments, child, room and family. The words in red modify—that is, describe, quantify or identify—the nouns. These words are called ADJECTIVES.


Base and Strong Adjectives 

Base adjectives - Base adjectives are normal adjectives that don't have the idea of 'very'
Strong adjectives - Strong adjectives, however, are extreme adjectives that have the idea of 'very'

         Base Adjectives        
 Strong Adjectives 
 beautiful  gorgeous
 ugly  awful
 dirty  filthy
 good          superb, great, fantastic         
 bad  terrible 
 happy   thrilled
 angry  furious
 hungry  starving
 tired  exhausted
 funny  hilarious
 big  huge, enormous
 small  tiny
 fat  obese
 scared terrified
 cold freezing
 hot boiling

Very, absolutely and really are used differently according whether the adjective is a base or a strong one:

   very    absolutely   really 
 Base Adjectives   Yes  No  Yes
 Strong Adjectives  No  Yes  Yes

Examples:
  • He was very happy; he was absolutely thrilled.
  • He was really happy/thrilled.


 

What are Adjectives?

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Adjectives are modifiers. They modify nouns and pronouns by limiting their meanings. Adjectives answer the questions What kind? Which one? How many? How much? 

Examples:

1. The hot coffee is blended well with cream and chocolate. 

    What kind of coffee? 
    ‘hot’ coffee. 
     The word ‘hot’ describes the noun coffee'.

2. These apartments are newly constructed.

     Which apartments?
     ‘those’ apartments
     The word ‘these’ modifies the noun ‘apartments.’

3. One teacher and a few students went to see the movie.

     How many teachers and students?
     ‘one’ teacher and ‘few’ students
      The words ‘one’ and ‘few’ quantify the nouns ‘teacher’ and ‘students’.

4. The whole work was completed on a shoe-string budget in a record time.

      How much work?
      ‘whole’ work
      The word ‘whole’ tells how much ‘work’ was done.


The examples above show the usual location of an adjective — preceding a noun. Sometimes, however, the adjective comes after a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. For example, 

1. The cafeteria was attractive.

2. Marlene was tried after the long flight.

3. Whales are larger than sharks.

Kinds of Adjectives

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1. Adjective of Quality – They indicate shape, size, color, taste, condition, behavior, and feeling; and answer the question ‘what kind?’

2. Adjective of Quantity – They express the quantity of nouns or pronouns and answer ‘how much?’

3. Adjective of Number – These adjectives answer ‘how many?’ and ‘in what order’?

4. Proper Adjectives – These adjectives are formed from proper nouns and begin with a capital letter.

5. Demonstrative Adjectives – These adjectives point out to specific persons, places, things or ideas.

6. Distributive Adjectives – These adjectives refer to individual person or thing. We take them separately and not collectively.

7. Interrogative Adjectives – We use adjectives like what, which, whose with nouns to ask questions. 

8. Possessive Adjectives – These adjectives show possession. They also show source of ownership and relationship.

Lists of Adjectives

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1. Adjectives of Quality:

a. shape: round, rectangular, conical, square, etc.

b. color: red, blue, green, yellow, white, black, orange, brown, pink etc.

c. behavior: pleasant, loyal, kind, rude, creative, volatile, shrewd, crazy, etc.

d. size: big, small, long, short, tall, huge, fat, thin, great, tiny, large, etc.

e. feeling: happy, loving, cold, sad, resentful, beautiful, ugly, dirty, clean, etc.

f.  taste: bitter, sweet, sour, salty, rotten, juicy, spicy, etc.

g. condition: difficult, easy, busy, careful, cautious, rich, poor, right, wrong, etc.

2. Adjectives of Quantity: Indefinite pronouns such as all, any, many, few, some, little, several, whole, much, etc.

3. Adjectives of Number: 
   
    Definite Number
   
      i. cardinals (how many): one, twenty, five hundred, etc.
 
     ii. ordinals (in what order): first, fourth, ninth, etc.

4. Proper Adjectives: Chinese, Spanish, English, Shakespearean, etc.

5. Demonstrative Adjectives: This, that, these, and those.

6. Distributive Adjectives: each, every, either, and neither.

7. Interrogative Adjectives: whose, what, which.

8. Possessive Adjectives: my, your, his, her, their, our, its, etc.


Underline the adjectives in each sentence.

1. Adjectives of Quality:       
      a. The round table looks better than the rectangular one.
      b. I had a large plate of pasta for dinner last night. 
      c. Because of her generous nature, Laura contributed to many causes. 
      d. The farmers worked hard during harvest.
      e. On a whim, Glenda jumped into her father’s car but immediately regretted her impulsive act.
 2. Adjectives of Quantity:      
      a. Many rules were made to curb the crime, but they were not followed strictly.
      b. Very few books were sold as hardly any publicity was given.
      c. Have you ever read any poems by Tennyson?
      d. Most tourists were interested in exploring historical landmarks like British Fort and Mud Lake Canal
      e. Some species are found nowhere else except the rain forest.
 3. Adjectives of Number:
        a. The instruction manual for this product is forty pages long.
b. Ralph’s house is on the eighth floor.
        c. Sam ate thirty burgers to break his previous record.
 4. Proper Adjectives:       
        a. Dylan loves Turkish dishes.
        b. I especially like gorditas and chili with everything, but Mexican restaurants in the United States usually don’t have real chili.
        c. What are the events that are leading up to the Russian and Vietnam war?

5. Demonstrative Adjectives:        
        a. This poem was written by William Wordsworth.
b. Those daisies wilted in the sun.
        c. The critics wondered if the writers of these novels have ever taken a course in English.

6. Distributive Adjectives:
        a. Each student in the class critiqued my performance.
b. You can park your vehicles on either side of the street.

7. Interrogative Adjectives:        
        a. Which letter should be posted to this address?
        b. Whose book is on the table?
        c. What questions might the audience ask about the topic?

8. Possessive Adjectives:        
        a. His car has been giving him trouble, so he is taking it to the workshop.
        b. Jesse helped her neighbors weed the garden.
        c. We spent our holidays in Japan when we were children.
        d. We like to shop at their store on account of the owner’s helpful attitude.
        e. The dog wagged its tail.

Exercise

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1. Write an acrostic poem using the word ADJECTIVE.

        A ___________________________________________________________________

        D ___________________________________________________________________

        J ___________________________________________________________________

        E ____________________________________________________________________

        C ____________________________________________________________________

        T ____________________________________________________________________

        I _____________________________________________________________________

       V ____________________________________________________________________

       E ____________________________________________________________________


2. Underline the adjective in each sentence and mention its kind in the blanks provided: 

a. Whose painting do you like the most? (_______________)

b. They don’t take much trouble in making decisions. (_________________)

c. The young man wore a dark, pinstriped suit. (________________)

        d. As the final seconds of the game approached, Russell’s team needed one touchdown to clinch the victory.                                       (______________)

        e. These accessories, which he has inherited, belong to his ancestor. (_____________)

        f. With one million followers on Twitter, Nelson has leveraged social media well. (____________)

g. The final of 1950 was the most spectacular vignettes of World Cup history. (_____________)

h. The harmonious mix of Indian, Chinese, and Japanese people from the interior gave the place a relaxed feel.                                     (______________)

i. The warm lighting at the restaurant gave it a very cosy ambience. (____________)

j. The two astronauts hold different opinions about this theory. (______________)


3. In the following sentences, underline the adjective and circle the noun it modifies.

a. We were given a warm welcome by the hosts.

b. What significant experiences do you have?

        c. Showcasing an extensive collection of toys, the unique collection originates from over 30 countries.

        d. Eating in a relaxed way promotes better digestion.

        e. Egyptian pyramids have four triangular sides that meet at the top.

        f. All the volunteers contributed to their community in a special way.

        g. The manager was so angry seeing the report.

        h. The price of an admission ticket to the zoo is five dollars.

        i. Amanda gets good grades in physics, but biology is her real interest in science.

        j. Fifty miles is not too long distance to drive for the championship game.

4. Frame sentences using these Adjectives: 

         little -  ________________________________________________________________________

         a little – ______________________________________________________________________

         older – _______________________________________________________________________
 
         elder – _______________________________________________________________________

         few -  ________________________________________________________________________

         a few – _______________________________________________________________________

         farther -  ______________________________________________________________________

         further -  ______________________________________________________________________

         next -  ________________________________________________________________________

         nearest - ______________________________________________________________________

More topics in Adjective
Adjective Clause Compound Adjective
Negative Adjective Positive Adjectives
Adjectives of Number Adjectives of Quantity
Adjective of Quality Demonstrative Adjectives
Interrogative Adjectives Superlative Adjectives
Comparative Adjectives Identifying Adjectives
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