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Grammar is a set of rules that explain how words are used in a language most of the time insentiently, to create phrases and sentences that convey meaning. The study of the classes of words, their inflections, and their functions and relations in a sentence is referred as Grammar. It is the ability to express ourselves in an effective way. An example of grammar is how commas and semicolons are supposed to be used.

Grammar is important because it is the language that makes it possible for us to talk about language. A sentence in English Grammar always begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point. The sentence is traditionally defined as a word or group of words that express a complete idea that includes a subject and a verb. Grammar names the types of words and word groups that make up sentences not only in English but in any language. Knowing about Grammar helps us understand what makes sentences and paragraphs precise and clear. 

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Parts of a Word:

A word can be divided into its STEM i.e. the basic part of the word containing its meaning and its INFLECTIONS i.e. the endings added to indicate such things as that a noun is PLURAL or a verb is in the past tense.

  • Stem – dog, walk
  • Inflections –‘s’ in dogs, ‘ed’ in walked

Parts of a Sentence:

  • The Subject is the person, thing or topic which the sentence deals with.
Example: The castle stands on the hill.
  • The Predicate is the entire sentence except the subject.
Example: The castle stands on the hill.
  • The Object is the person, thing or topic upon which the subject carries out the action of the verb.
Example: The castle overlooks the sea.

Good to know: A sentence that contains all 26 letters of the alphabet is called a pangram.

Ex: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.


Different types of English Grammar

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Descriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as it's actually used by speakers and writers. Descriptive grammar examines the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Prescriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. Prescriptive grammar enforces rules and examples about what they believe to be the correct uses of language. There are ten types of English Grammar:
  1. Comparative Grammar: It is the analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of related languages.
  2. Generative Grammar: It is the rules determining the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers use of language.
  3. Mental Grammar: It allows a speaker to produce language that is understandable which is the generative grammar stored in the brain.
  4. Pedagogical Grammar: Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students for teaching or raising awareness of the learners.
  5. Performance Grammar: Refers to a description of the way words are organized in English to form paragraphs and sentences.
  6. Reference Grammar: A description of the grammar of a language used as reference for grammatical facts, with explanations of the principles leading the construction of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  7. Theoretical Grammar: The study of the essential components of any human language which studies individual language and determines what is required for grammar analysis.
  8. Traditional Grammar: The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of the language, it summarizes the methods found and attitudes in the period before the advent of linguistic science.
  9. Transformational Grammar: Refers to the theory of grammar that explains the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures.
  10. Universal Grammar: It is the system of categories, operations, and principles shared by all human languages and considered to be distinctive.

Basic English Grammar Rules

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Understanding the basic grammar rules is essential for communicating efficiently. Correct basic grammar simply means your writing is clear and understandable.
  1. A sentence needs to express a complete thought.
  2. Use a Comma to Connect Two Ideas As One
  3. A singular subject needs a singular predicate.
  4. Clauses, like any sentence, have a subject and predicate.
  5. Never Split Infinitives Example: “to sit quickly,” say, “to quickly sit.”
  6. Never end sentences with a preposition.
  7. If a group of words does not have a subject and predicate, it is a phrase.
  8. Always use pronoun while a subject agreement
  9. You need an apostrophe to shoe possession (Frank’s) and for contractions( don’t for do not)
  10. If they can stand alone and make a complete thought, then they are independent and called sentences.
  11. If they do not express a complete thought, they are called "dependent clauses." An example of a dependent clause, which is not a sentence, is “when i finish my work”.
The Golden Rule of Grammar:
The best way to check your written work for basic grammar errors is to ask yourself, does it sound right? If a sentence sounds clear, to the point, and understandable then the basic grammar should be fine.


Your/ you're 
  1. Your is a possessive pronoun, as in "your car", "your house"
  2. You're a contraction of "you are", as in "You're just trying to make friends."
It's / Its
  1. It's is a contraction of "it is" or "it has", as in It's an apple.
  2. 'Its' is a possessive pronoun as in, Please put it back in its place.
There/ Their/ They're
  1. There/ Their - Are you talking about more than one person and something they possess? If so, "their" will get you "there"
  2. There is a contraction of "they are" as in, They went on their vacation, and they're having a great time.
Then/ Than
  1. Use the word 'than' when comparing and 'then' in all other instances.
  2. First there were four, and then there were two.
  3. I like chocolates better than ice creams.
Loose/ Lose 
  1. Use "loose" to mean the opposite of tight or compact. Use "lose" to describe no longer possessing something in any sense of the word.
  2. If your pants are too loose, you might lose your pants.
  3. Your dog is loose, you might lose your dog.
Me, Myself and I
  1. Both I and me are pronouns that we use to refer to ourselves but I is nominative and me is accusative
  2. I thought to myself, why?
  3. I am ready to go. Would you like me to go?
Everyday/ Every day
  1. Everyday is an adjective meaning commonplace or ordinary.
  2. Every day refers to each individual day.
Whether vs. Weather
  1. We're going to have a picnic, whether or not the weather is warm.

Grammar, regardless of the country or the language, is the foundation for communication. The better the grammar, the clearer the message, there is more likelihood of understanding the message's intent and meaning. It takes a wide knowledge of the English language to avoid looking like you've simply made a mistake. English is the primary grammatical standard for the world today. English Grammar is the way in which sentences are structured and the language is organized, so whilst it may be considered a bit boring to study correct grammar, it really is worth the time and effort.



Grammatical Terms

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 Verb                                  Noun                                Pronoun                           Adjectives                           Prepositional Phrase          
 Adverbs   Tense   Active Voice   Passive Voice   Conjunction
 Subject  Predicate   Clause  Dependent Clause   Independent Clause
 Direct Object   Indirect Object   Sentence  Simple Sentence  Interrogative Sentence 
 Complex Sentence   Imperative Sentence   Declarative sentence   Exclamatory Sentence   Compound Sentence

Grammar can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. Grammar, at its core, refers to the rules of language. Thus, the grammar of a language is an analysis of the various functions performed by the words of the language, as they are used by speakers and writers.

There are various methods of analyzing a language words can be given various names, depending on the function they perform. When words perform a function of naming things are known as Nouns, or words which perform the function of expressing actions are known as Verbs. Many English words can perform more than one function.

  • As a Noun: Water is one of the basic necessities of life. 
  • As a Verb: Do you water your plants daily?
  • As a Noun: I have lost my comb.
  • As a Verb:  I comb my hair every morning.

If it's a short pause, like that just was, you probably need a comma. If it's a longer pause, but not quite a full stop, you probably need a semi-colon; remember that whatever follows a semi-colon must be able to stand on its own as a full sentence.
More topics in Grammar
Clauses Phrases
Modifiers Parallel Structure
Colons and Semicolons Sentence Fragments
Parts of Speech Tenses
Punctuation Capitalization
Conjunction Interjection
Direct and Indirect Speech Appositives
Antecedents Determiners
Subjunctive Articles
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